IntroductionA Table Of Contents
Introduction...........................................A table of contents.
Questions..............................................3 important questions that will be explored in this project.
Background Info....................................Some background info to understand more about swing.
Samples + Explanations.......................Some samples and the information extracted from them.
Research..............................................Comparing the conclusions to the conclusions that other historians came to.
Census Data.........................................The actual data that was looked at on the census website.
Census Extractions...............................The extractions made by looking at the census data, and how it relates to swing.
Conclusion............................................The Conclusion.
Bibliography..........................................Citations.
Questions Three important questions that will be explored in this project.
What is swing music?

According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, Swing music is to have a steady pulsing, lively compelling rhythm.

What made swing so popular?
It was energetic, and had happy nature. It made you want to move, and a gave a contrast to the mood of the rest of the world during that time.

How important is swing in today's culture?
Swing is still a dance that many know today. Competitions are still held, and the catchy beats have been replicated into many many different genres.

Background InfoSome background information to help understand more about Swing music.
During the great depression, many new forms of entertainment were founded. Inexpensive pass-times such as dancing became much more popular. Swing music became popular during this time, and was enjoyed because of its happy, energetic nature, and the fact that it that made you want to move. This was called the rhythm bug, and the catchy rhythms inspired energetic dances. Dance marathons were held, and because many people had no job, they were able to attend and compete in these contests. Many people went just for the fun and others were inspired by the rewards that were given to the winners. To know how to swing was to be cool, to not know how to swing was to be a square. Swing remained popular through WW2 and really only started falling off the charts when music became something much more than live performances. Now, most music is in the recording studios, with editing for 'better' and 'cooler' effects.

SAMPLES + EXPLANATIONSSome samples and the information extracted about them.

A video of a Warner Brother cartoon from 1939:

This is just a sample of what definitely IS swing music. Notice the comments about the 'rhythm bug' and how everyone is a cat, which is a play on the expression 'cool cat'. There is a lot of what was 'hip' in this video.

A video of a swing competition from 2006-

This is just a sample of competitive Swing Dance from 2006. Along the sidelines you'll notice that the crowd is very energetic, and looks as though THEY want to go jump in and start dancing too. Also you can see that the dancers are almost more gymnasts that dancers, and there is a lot of flipping. This is competitive, so there are more throws than there would usually have been, but everyone would know how to do a basic Lindy Hop back in the 1930's and the fast footwork is also something that many would know how to do.
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It was decided that after showing you those samples of classic swing and swing dance, you would be shown songs that fit the Webster Dictionary definition and see if they would be called swing by the good people of Philadelphia. I am interviewing the public because who makes definitions but the people? Who makes the words and expressions that then get put into the dictionaries? By doing this a more detailed definition of swing can be created.
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Uprising by Muse-






This song has a steady pulsing beat, but 90 % of the people asked said that it was not swing. When asked, most said that it was too "dark", "techno", and didn't give the same "being able to dance" feel that classic swing gives.
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Swinging like Tige by The Cherry Popping Daddies-







The following song was picked because it fits the Webster Dictionary definition, and fits the criteria added from the last song.
100% of listeners said that it WAS swing, but 30% said that it was swing because it said 'Swing' in the lyrics.
When asked how the the music made them feel listeners said it made them "want to move", "want to smile". One listener described it as a feeling that "makes you feel sneaky, like your about to do something sly.". Others described it as a feeling that "makes you want to grab a girl and swing her around". Another listener said that "it makes you want to move your hips".
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95 % of listeners said that this was swing and their reasons were that it made them want to move. One elderly man explained that he knew it was swing because the music itself swung. He said that "you can feel it moving louder, softer, louder, softer. Like there is a background tune that pulses, but more. it- it- well hahaha it swings!"
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From the Data gathered above, a definition of Swing has been formed-

Swing is music which has a lively compelling rhythm and is not dark, does not have a 'techno' feel, and gives the sensation of wanting to dance.
Research
Comparing the conclusions that were found so far to the conclusions that other historians came to.
Webster Dictionary-
Swing is to have a steady pulsing, lively compelling rhythm.

Princeton Dictionary-
Music with a jaunty rhythm.

Encyclopaedia Britannica-
Swing music had a compelling momentum that results from musicians' attacks and accenting in relation to fixed beats.

PBS-
A style of jazz played by big bands popular in the 1930's; flowing rhythms but less complex than later styles of Jazz; music; jive.

ELook-
Music with rhythm; to play with a subtle and intuitively felt sense of rhythm.



However, the most important discovery made was from a footnote that said "Swing rhythms defy any narrow definition, and the music has never been notated exactly".





Census Data
The actual data that was looked at on the census website. (Extractions are in area "Census Extractions")Swing music is to have a steady pulsing, lively compelling rhythm.
In 1920 population increase was 15 %
In 1930 population increase was 16.2 %
In 1940 population increase was 18.5 %


1920 Questions-
  1. Street of person's place of abode
    Enumerators were to write the name of the street vertically in the column, so that they only had to write it once for all of the enumerated persons living on that street
  2. House number or farm
  3. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation by enumerator
  4. Number of family in order of visitation by enumerator
  5. Name
  6. Relationship to head of family
  7. Is the person's home owned or rented?
  8. If owned, is it owned freely or mortgaged?
  9. Sex
  10. Color or race

    Enumerators were to enter "W" for White, "B" for Black, "Mu" for mulatto, "Ch" for Chinese, "Jp" for Japanese, "In" for American Indian, or "Ot" for other races.
  11. Age at last birthday
  12. Single, married, widowed, or divorced?

    Enumerators were to enter "S" for single, "Wd" for widowed, "D" for divorced, "M1" for married persons in their first marriage, and "M2" for those married persons in their second or subsequent marriage.
  13. Year of immigration to the United States
  14. Is the person naturalized or alien?
  15. If naturalized, what was the year of naturalization?
  16. Did the person attend school at any time since September 1, 1919?
  17. Can the person read?
  18. Can the person write?
  19. Person's place of birth
  20. Person's mother tongue
  21. Person's father's place of birth
  22. Person's father's mother tongue
  23. Person's mother's place of birth
  24. Person's mother's mother tongue
  25. Can the person speak English?
  26. Person's trade or profession
  27. Industry, business, or establishment in which the person works
  28. Is the person an employer, a salary or wage worker, or working on his own account?
  29. If the person is a farmer, what is the farm's identification number on the corresponding farm schedule?

1930 Questions-
  1. Street the enumerated person lives on
  2. House number of enumerated person (in cities and towns)
  3. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation by enumerator
  4. Number of family in order of visitation by enumerator
  5. Name
  6. Relationship to head of family
  7. Is the person's home owned or rented?
  8. If the home is owned, is it owned free or mortgaged?
  9. Does this person live on a farm NOW?
  10. Did this person live on a farm A YEAR AGO?
  11. Sex
  12. Color or Race
    Enumerators were to enter "W" for white, "Neg" for black, "Mex" for Mexican, "In" for American Indian, "Ch" for Chinese, "Jp" for Japanese, "Fil" for Filipino, "Hin" for Hindu, and "Kor" for Korean. All other races were to be written out in full.
  13. Age
  14. Is the person single, married, divorced, or widowed?
  15. Has the person attended school at any time since Sept. 1, 1929?
  16. Can the person read and write?
  17. Person's place of birth
  18. Person's father's place of birth
  19. Person's mother's place of birth
  20. Year of immigration into the United States
  21. Is the person naturalized or an alien?
  22. Is the person able to speak English?
  23. Trade, profession, or particular kind of work done?
  24. Industry or business in which at work
  25. Is person an Employee (E), wage or salary worker (W), or own account (O)?
  26. Whether the person is actually at work?
  27. Record line number for unemployed
  28. Whether the person is a veteran of the U.S. military or naval forces mobilized for any war or expedition?
  29. If yes, which war or expedition?
    Enumerators were to enter "WW" for World War I, "Sp" for the Spanish-American War, "Civ" for the Civil War, "Phil" for the Phillipine insurrection, "Box" for the Boxer rebellion, or "Mex" for the Mexican expedition.
  30. Number of farm schedule

1940 Questions-__

Population

  1. Street the person lives on
  2. House number
  3. Number of household in order of visitation
  4. Is the home owned or rented?
  5. Value of the home, if owned, or monthly rental, if rented
  6. Does the person's household live on a farm?
  7. Name
  8. Relationship with the head of household
  9. Sex
  10. Color or race
  11. Age at last birthday
  12. Marital status
  13. Did the person attend school or college at any time in the past year?
  14. What was the highest grade of school that the person completed?
  15. Person's place of birth
  16. If foreign born, is the person a citizen?
In what place did the person live on April 1, 1935?
For persons who, on April 1, 1935 was living in the same house as at present, enumerators were to enter "same house" into column 17; they were to leave the rest of the columns in this section blank. For persons who lived in a different house, enumerators were to fill out the columns with information about their 1935 residence.
  1. City, town, or village
    • For villages with fewer than 2,600 residents, and all unorganized places, enumerators were to enter "R."
  2. County
  3. State or Territory
  4. Was this house on a farm?
For persons 14 years and older - employment status
  1. Was the person at work for pay or profit in private or nonemergency government work during the week of March 24 - 30?
  2. If not, was he at work on, or assigned to, public emergency work (WPA, NYA, CCC, etc.) during the week of March 24 - 30?
  3. If the person was neither at work or assigned public emergency work: was this person seeking work?
  4. If not seeking work, did he have a job or business?
  5. For persons answering "No" to questions 21, 22, 23, and 24; indicate whether engaged in home housework (H), in school (S), unable to work (U), or Other (Ot)
  6. If the person was at work in private or non emergency government employment: how many hours did he work in the week of March 24 - 30?
  7. If the person was seeking work or assigned to public emergency work: what was the duration, in weeks, of his unemployment?
  8. What is the person's occupation, trade, or profession?
  9. What is the person's industry or business?
  10. What is the person's class of worker?
  11. Number of weeks worked in 1939 (or equivalent of full time weeks)
  12. Amount of money, wages, or salary received (including commissions)
  13. Did this person receive income of more than $50 from sources other than money wages or salary?
  14. Corresponding number on the Farm Schedule of the person's farm

Census Extractions

The extractions made about the data from the census Website. (Data in area "Census Data ")The gradual raise in the percent of the population increase shows that there was much imigration. As noted above, the Great Depression started in 1929. However poor America was, there were MANY countries that were much worse. Furthermore, America had a lot of Welfare. When FDR was voted president, he set up many federal run programs to releive those suffering from Unemployment. Notice the questions about employment status? These are attempts to gauge how 'recovered' America was.

Some of the questions on the U.S. Census show that De-Segregation is catching, and that there are more different types of people in America. Notice that in 1920, on the question 'color or race' one was supposed to enter "W" for White, "B" for Black, "Mu" for mulatto, "Ch" for Chinese, "Jp" for Japanese, "In" for American Indian, or "Ot" for other races. In 1930, they had added "Mex" for Mexicans, "Fil" for Filipino, "Hin" for Hindu, and "Kor" for Korean. On top of that, they had also removed the "Ot" for other, and had simply said that all others must right out their color or race. Then in 1940, they did away with all the abbreviations and simply asked people to write out their race or color.

Swing was influenced by the coming together of many different ethnicity, and by peoples wish to lighten the mood. Many people also were feeling grateful for being in America as apposed to their home country which also added to the light mood that swing is known for.

Conclusion
Swing music is Music which has a lively compelling rhythm and is not dark, does not have a 'techno' feel. It has a double beat, one that is steady, and another which the musician stresses and unstresses to create a feeling of swinging music. Further than this swing rhythms defy any narrower definition and the music has never been notated exactly. It was influenced by the coming together of many different ethnicity's and by peoples wish to lighten the mood during the time of the Great Depression. Swing is known for being fun, and jaunty, and is a distant relative of jazz through its sometimes containing scat and through the similarity in instruments used.

Bibliography




"1930s And 1940s Jazz Combos." Swing Music. SwingMusic.Net, 2007. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.swingmusic.net/Modern_Swing.html>.

Daniel, Vargese. "Cherry Poppin' Daddies." www.Daddies.com. Cherry Poppin' Daddies, 13 may 2010. Web. 31 May 2010.

Leuchtenburg, William E. Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1940. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1963, passim.

McElvaine, Robert S. The Great Depression: America, 1929-1941. New York: Times Books, 1993, passim.

Stathes, Tom. "Cartoon Collection." Toonzone. Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd., 2003. Web.

"Swing." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 31 May. 2010 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/577113/swing>.

"The End of the swing era." Just The Swing. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.just-the-swing.com/his/swing-history/end-of-swing-era>.

The US Government, . "History: Fast Facts." U.S. Census Bureau. 1920. 2010. Web. <http://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/fast_facts/1920_fast_facts.html>.

The US Government, . "History: Fast Facts." U.S. Census Bureau. 1930. 2010. Web. <http://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/fast_facts/1930_fast_facts.html>.

The US Government, . "History: Fast Facts." U.S. Census Bureau. 1940. 2010. Web. <http://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/fast_facts/1940_fast_facts.html>.